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The latest generation of broadband passive optical integrated access standards is the basis for GPON (Gigabit Passive Optical Network). There are lots of advantages like high efficiency, high bandwidth, rich user interface, and excellent coverage. The access network is regarded by the most operators as a broadband technology and an integrated ideal technology transformation.
GFP (Generic Framing Procedure) contains the picture drawn by GPON and this is regarded as its technical feature which is defined by ITU-T on the second floor and the General Encapsulation Methods is extended with encapsulation format for rearranging services of various rate PON transmission and the frame length indicator byte is present in the GFM header for variable length packet deliver to enhance the efficiency of transmission. It is quite simple, common and effective to assist full-service details:
(1) Unprecedented high bandwidth: Sufficient bandwidth is provided by GPON with a 2.5 Gbps to satisfy the enhancing future demands of higher bandwidth along with asymmetric features which are apt for broadband data services market.
(2) QoS guaranteed full-service access: ATM cell and/or GEM frame can be carried by GPON simultaneously which offers excellent service levels assistance QoS guarantee and complete access capability. In the current scenario, the ATM technology carrying voice, Ethernet, PDH and other multi-services have been matured. The approval of using GEM to bear lots of subscriber services has been applied on a broader scaled and develop with the actual business after the package format transmission PON transmission.
(3) TDM is well supported: GEM frames have TDM services mapped to it. The frame length of GPON TC is 125 ms, it can assist directly to TDM services. With ATM cells, TDM services can also be mapped and apart from that it offers a real-time transmission with QoS guarantees.
(4) Simple and efficient packet: A simple and efficient packet can be achieved by the multi-service flow of GEM. All the multi-service flow must be converted into an ATM cell for the purpose of transmission. The process of implementation is quite simple in EPON where Ethernet frames are carried. The process is very simple with low overhead and efficient protocol encapsulation up to 94 % for achieving the complete use of bandwidth resources.
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